What is Layer 1 in Blockchain?

A layer 1 (L1) blockchain is the most basic part of a blockchain network. The core layer talks to users directly, makes sure transactions are valid, and keeps the distributed ledger up to date. It is the job of L1 blockchains to keep the network safe, decentralised, and agree on what to do.

Key characteristics

Here is the list of key characteristics of layer 1 blockchains. I hope it can give you more information about layer 1:

  • Direct interaction with users: L1 blockchains allow users to directly interact with the network by sending and receiving transactions, storing and managing their funds, and participating in governance processes.
  • Transaction validation: L1 blockchains employ consensus mechanisms to validate transactions and ensure the integrity of the network. These mechanisms ensure that all participants agree on the state of the ledger.
  • Distributed ledger maintenance: L1 blockchains maintain a distributed ledger, which is a synchronized record of all transactions on the network. This ledger is copied on many nodes, which makes it impossible to change and resistant to censorship.

Examples of layer 1 blockchains

We now understand what layer 1 is, let’s see some examples. In order to do different tasks, each blockchain is unique.

  • Bitcoin (BTC): It was the first and best-known cryptocurrency. It uses the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism and runs on a layer 1 blockchain.
  • Ethereum (ETH): It is a well-known blockchain platform for decentralised applications (DApps). it uses a different way to reach a consensus, called Proof of Stake (PoS).
  • BNB Smart Chain (BNB): It is a blockchain network that runs in parallel with the BNB Beacon Chain.


It’s very important to the blockchain ecosystem because they make it possible to build decentralised apps, make transactions safe and clear, and let people on the network interact without trusting each other.